Or, at least, recent studies about seagrass restoration report high costs and low success rates. Total Environ. 83, 417–424. Morrison, M. A., Lowe, M. L., Grant, C. M., Smith, P. J., Carbines, G., Reed, J., et al. Lastly, while seed collection is considered to have less of an impact on donor meadows than collection of shoots, it is still important to understand the impact seed collection might have, especially surrounding how much can be collected without impacting donor meadows and other connected meadows. (2010). P. R. Soc. But, much of what we know about seagrass restoration is buried deep in reports and permits, never finding its way into scientific articles. 70, 936–951. (2012). doi: 10.1111/eva.12909, Miller, A. D., Hoffmann, A. Ecol. Ecol. Campbell, M. L. (2003). doi: 10.3354/MEPS08925, Reed, D. H., and Frankham, R. (2003). The seagrass salvage program recovers seagrasses which would otherwise be lost as a result of marine construction (i.e., docks, piers) and transplants the grass to areas of similar habitat where beds are in need of restoration. (2009). Coast. The use of artificial in-water structures to protect restoration trials is not new, and some have been shown to improve survival of both transplanted shoots and seedlings (Campbell and Paling, 2003; Tuya et al., 2017). Tanner, J. E., and Theil, M. J. Eco-engineering and management strategies for marine infrastructure to reduce establishment and dispersal of non-indigenous species. —Few seagrass transplant projects have relied on seeds, and those projects using eelgrass seeds have generally found low rates of seedling establishment (<10%). Australian shellfish ecosystems: past distribution, current status and future direction. 96:fiz201. (2010). Coast. Mediterranean warming triggers seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) shoot mortality. This review describes several restoration successes in Australia and New Zealand, with a focus on emerging techniques for restoration, key considerations for future programs, and highlights the benefits of increased collaboration, Traditional Owner (First Nation) and stakeholder engagement. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00690.x, Byars, S. G., Papst, W., and Hoffmann, A. Evol. Canberra, CBR: Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Ecol. This may in turn make it harder to secure funding for future restoration works if the outcomes are uncertain, or even long-term monitoring programs which may be more expensive than the restoration itself. The use of novel and potentially more efficient monitoring techniques should also be expanded upon, such as the use of remote sensing or drones (Duffy et al., 2018; Nahirnick et al., 2019; Phinn et al., 2018). (2013) were able to produce larger P. australis seedlings by modifying the sediment composition used (Figure 2). SAV Technical Notes Collection (ERDC/TN SAV-07-2). Lett. Artificial seagrass leaves shield transplanted seagrass seedlings and increase their survivorship. Kirkman, H. (1989). Ser. However, there is as yet no similar requirement for coastal wetlands (which include seagrass meadows to 2 m below low water). doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13605, Gillies, C. L., McLeod, I. M., Alleway, H. K., Cook, P., Crawford, C., Creighton, C., et al. Conserv. use direct salary costs without accounting for benefits or overhead. Arias-Ortiz, A., Serrano, O., Masqué, P., Lavery, P. S., Mueller, U., Kendrick, G. A., et al. Heavier emphasis is given to Australian restoration work in this review, largely due to the fact that although there has been recent activity with regards to seagrass restoration in New Zealand, the New Zealand effort to date, lags far behind Australia and the world. doi: 10.1007/s10592-014-0573-4. Manag. Nat. Recovery of Danish coastal ecosystems after reductions in nutrient loading: a holistic ecosystem approach. In such cases conservation of remnant populations persisting in areas more likely to support the species under climate change becomes a priority, and interventions, such as assisted range expansion, to facilitate species movement to climatically suitable areas may need to be considered (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2008; Cole et al., 2011; Winder et al., 2011; Wadgymar et al., 2015). Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. Connolly, R. M., Dunn, R. J. K., Flindt, M. R., Jackson, E. L., Kristensen, E., McKenna, S., et al. Sherman, C., Smith, T., York, P. H., Jarvis, J. C., Ruiz-Montoya, L., and Kendrick, G. A. A Rapid Response Assessment. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2004.09.001, Bulmer, R., Kelly, S., and Jeffs, A. G. (2016). (2010). Indigenous knowledge as a remedy for shifting baseline syndrome. 18, 538–548. Predicting seagrass recovery times and their implications following an extreme climate event. Bull. Conserv. Rehfeldt, G. E., and Jaquish, B. C. (2010). Seagrass restoration is a rapidly maturing discipline, but improved restoration practices are needed to enhance the success of future programs. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2011.00192.x, Wendländer, N. S., Lange, T., Connolly, R. M., Kristensen, E., Pearson, R. M., Valdemarsen, T., et al. Nonetheless, the knowledge and experience gained from these early studies have proved invaluable for developing the knowledge that has made large-scale seagrass restoration feasible today. Further monitoring is required to make informed decisions on where seagrass has been lost, and where it could potentially be restored. 25, 605–617. 134, 145–151. Int. (2006). Aquat. Mediterranean seagrass growth and demography responses to experimental warming. Change Biol. Grass Begets Grass. “Empowering indigenous community engagement and approaches in lake restoration: an Āotearoa-New Zealand perspective,” in Lake Restoration Handbook. Biol. The effects of manipulation of sedimentary iron and organic matter on sediment biogeochemistry and seagrasses in a subtropical carbonate environment. J. Environ. doi: 10.1126/science.1157897, Holmer, M., Duarte, C., and Marbá, N. (2005). Australia and New Zealand could expand on these existing polices, and learn from other regions which have more proactive policies on marine restoration, such as Living Shorelines (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], 2015), or from terrestrial ecosystems [e.g., Working for Water South Africa (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2019) or the Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (2016)]. AIATSIS (2012). Seagrass Meadows as Biodiversity and Productivity Hotspots. Genetic signatures of Bassian glacial refugia and contemporary connectivity in a marine foundation species. |. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02130.x, Marion, S. R., and Orth, R. J. (2003). Estuary muddiness and seasonally low light constrains seagrass restoration. Thus, the overall effectiveness of the method might be limited. Glob. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.02.010, Lefcheck, J. S., Marion, S. R., and Orth, R. J. Auckland: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, 190. Sci. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00157.x, Sharma, S., Goff, J., Moody, R. M., Byron, D., Heck, K. L. Jr., Powers, S. P., et al. Second row left to right: seagrass nurseries (© Gary Kendrick and John Statton); anchoring shoots using iron nails (© Troels Lange). Spec. Successful eelgrass (Zostera marina) restoration in a formerly eutrophic estuary (Boston Harbor) supports the use of a multifaceted watershed approach to mitigating eelgrass loss. Bot. Whakatane: Environment Bay of Plenty. These losses include several large-scale declines in Shark Bay, West Australia, Western Port, Victoria, and metropolitan Adelaide, which lost 154,800, 17,800, and 5,200 ha of seagrass habitat, respectively (Tanner et al., 2014; Arias-Ortiz et al., 2018; Statton et al., 2018). The original impetus for this study originated from two practitioner workshops hosted by Deakin University (2017) and Department of the Environment and Energy (2018). Restor. The efficiency of Z. marina seed collection has been improved through mechanical harvesting in North America, with an estimated maximum mechanical collection rate of 132,000 seeds/labor-hour versus 62,000 seeds/labor-hour using manual collection, with minimal damage to the donor meadow (Marion and Orth, 2010). These include tying seagrass shoots to metal frames which are lowered to the seafloor (e.g., Transplanting Eelgrass Remotely with Frame Systems (TERFS), Calumpong and Fonseca, 2001; Wendländer et al., 2020), or to oyster shells (Lee and Park, 2008). Experimental transplanting of seagrasses in Botany Bay. Manag. “Decline and restoration ecology of Australian Seagrasses,” in Seagrasses of Australia: Structure, Ecology and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, G. A. Kendrick, and P. J. Ralph (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 665–704. IUCN Red List Threat. (1997). We have now reached a point where ecologically meaningful large-scale seagrass restoration is possible given enough scientific, community, and political support. Whilst many types of habitat suitability models exist, the principle of spatial planning and suitability indexes can be expanded to include development of restoration suitability models which encompass not only the environmental and physical suitability for seagrasses, but cultural, logistical, and social data as well. PLoS One 13:e0190914. Storm-generated fragments of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica from beach wrack – a potential source of transplants for restoration. Adelaide Seagrass Rehabilitation Project: 2017-2019. Various academic research groups and management bodies around the globe work on seagrass restoration, and while their research outputs are published in international journals and gray literature, it is well-established that a publication bias toward successful restoration outcomes exists (Zedler, 2007). Feasibility Study to Investigate the Replenishment/Reinstatement of Seagrass Beds in Whangarei Harbour – Phase 1. While sound polices and legislation may provide a firm foundation for upscaling seagrass restoration efforts, investment may be quickly undermined if resources are not carefully targeted to areas where threats to seagrass persistence have been removed or reduced, successful seagrass restoration is feasible, stakeholders are willing and able to invest, and the benefits to other environmental and social values are the greatest. 61, 1123–1133. (2016). 56, 185–195. Conserv. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2012.03.009, Duarte, C. M. (1991). (1999). In Australia, seedling culture has also been carried out on Prunus angustifolia (Irving et al., 2010) and P. australis (Statton et al., 2013). Root microbiomes as indicators of seagrass health. The successes currently experienced in terrestrial restoration have been built upon decades of knowledge and experience gained through numerous studies and experiments, many of which were not successful initially but were invaluable for understanding why early restoration attempts did not work, and allowed for improvements to restoration methods and techniques to be made (Nellemann and Corcoran, 2010). Spectral differences in the underwater light regime caused by sediment types in New Zealand estuaries: implications for seagrass photosynthesis. Bull. Seagrass meadows continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts, so it is imperative that we attempt to stem the decline and work toward restoring degraded habitats. Natl. 61, 269–288. U.S.A. 112, 14295–14300. Temperature extremes reduce seagrass growth and induce mortality. Ecol. Impact of hydrodynamics on development and morphology of intertidal seagrasses in the Wadden Sea. Seagrass wrack has many important ecological functions (Kirkman and Kendrick, 1997; Ince et al., 2007; Del Vecchio et al., 2017), but can also pose problems for coastal managers as its over-accumulation is often viewed as a nuisance by the public and high costs are incurred in their removal (Macreadie et al., 2017). Declines of many seagrass species have been attributed to thermal stress associated with rising sea surface temperatures and extreme temperature events (Marbà and Duarte, 2010; Thomson et al., 2015; Carlson et al., 2018; Babcock et al., 2019). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02791.x, Kohlmeier, D., Pilditch, C. A., Bornman, J. F., and Bischof, K. (2014). doi: 10.1111/rec.12329, Sharpe, A., and Conrad, C. (2006). Ferretto, G., Glasby, T. M., Housefield, G. P., Poore, A. G. P., Statton, J., Sinclair, E. A., et al. 567, 79–93. B. Mar. Conserv. Aust. Mar. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2017.11.001, Ens, E. J., Pert, P., Clarke, P. A., Budden, M., Clubb, L., Doran, B., et al. 235, 183–200. Mar. Restor. Wabnitz, C. C., Andréfouët, S., Torres-Pulliza, D., Müller-Karger, F. E., and Kramer, P. A. Resulting plant densities exceeded target densities of 10 plants m–2 (Figure 2). 208, 171–188. 18, 83–97. “A review of techniques using adult plants and seeds to transplant eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Chesapeake Bay and the Virginia Coastal Bays,” in Seagrass Restoration: Success, Failure, and the Costs of Both, eds S. F. Treat and R. R. Lewis (Sarasota, FL: Mote Marine Laboratory). (2017). doi: 10.1023/a:1007965506873, Koch, M., Bowes, G., Ross, C., and Zhang, X. Change Biol. doi: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.2.5, Benito-Garzón, M., Ha-Duong, M., Frascaria-Lacoste, N., and Fernández-Manjarrés, J. The decline of seagrass meadows is a common and widespread problem throughout the world, but strong recovery seems to be happening in the Albany Harbours region on the south coast of Western Australia. 9:894. Climate-related genetic variation in drought-resistance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Restoration • Monitoring • Adaptive management – budget for these expenses but hope not to use them • 1 ac (0.4 ha) ~ $15K (Fonseca et al. Impact of light limitation on seagrasses. 30. 27, 59–78. Involving community members in restoration and subsequent monitoring of restoration success not only raises awareness but creates a sense of ownership and encourages volunteers to return and donate more of their time (Tanner et al., 2014). Ecol. Orth, R. J., S. R. Marion, et al. A., Fraser, M. W., Marshall, I. P., Scholz, V. V., and Schmidt, H. (2020b). Open coast seagrass restoration. Small isolated populations often have similar issues (Kendrick et al., 2012; Reynolds et al., 2013; McMahon et al., 2014). Ruiz-Halpern, S., Macko, S. A., and Fourqurean, J. W. (2008). Hamilton: NIWAR. N. Z. J. Mar. Insights into the assisted colonization debate from Australia. Ecol. Recent success has also occurred in Whangarei Harbor, New Zealand, with at least 600 ha of Zostera muelleri being rehabilitated due to management actions taken to improve water quality and subsequent restoration planting trials (Matheson et al., 2017). Orth, R. J., Harwell, M. C., Bailey, E. M., Bartholomew, A., Jawad, J. T., Lombana, A. V., et al. doi: 10.1007/s12237-016-0141-x, Leimu, R., Mutikainen, P., Koricheva, J., and Fischer, M. (2006). Ecol. Projections of suitable habitat under climate change scenarios: implications for trans-boundary assisted colonization. The shoot density increased from 19 to 900 m–2 within the first 2 years, with vegetative propagations also partly covering the bare bottom areas. Bull. ), Seagrass Restoration: Success, Failure, and the Costs of Both. Seagrass-watch: community based monitoring of seagrass resources. Aquatic Botany 64(1): 77-85. Assisted colonization is not a viable conservation strategy. Ecosyst. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00635.x. Wrack-collected P. angustifolia seedlings showed survival of 6–9% after 11 months in aquaculture, and survival upon outplanting was also low (Irving et al., 2010). Bull. “Reproductive, dispersal and recruitment strategies in Australian seagrasses,” in Seagrasses of Australia: Structure, Ecology and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, G. A. Kendrick, and P. J. Ralph (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 665–704. Also, the eelgrass team at DMF successfully restored tens of acres of eelgrass, the most eelgrass restoration in Massachusetts. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00873.x, Statton, J., Dixon, K. W., Hovey, R. K., and Kendrick, G. A. Managers should also consider seagrass co-benefits, which provide additional incentives for seagrass restoration. Benefits and costs of alternate seagrass restoration approaches• Date 23rd August 2019 Page | 4 . Remote Sens. 80, 283–289. doi: 10.3354/meps102187, Evans, S. M., Sinclair, E. A., Poore, A. G. B., Steinberg, P. D., Kendrick, G. A., and Vergés, A. Long-term climate-associated dynamics of a tropical seagrass meadow: implications for the future. Aquat. Leederville: Oceanica Consulting Pty Ltd. Olsen, Y. S., Sánchez-Camacho, M., Murbà, N., and Duarte, C. M. (2012). Policy 35, 560–567. Restoration success: how is it being measured?
Mar. Aquat. 513, 85–96. Biol. Biol. Hawkins, S. J., Allen, J. R., Ross, P. M., and Genner, M. J. Manage. Fish Fish. “Review of Australian rehabilitation and restoration programs,” in Seagrass in Australia. ES was supported by an Australian Research Council grant to GK (DP180100668). (2001). Front. Ecol. A Report for the Broome Community Seagrass Monitoring Project, Environs Kimberley. This typically applies to widespread species with wide latitudinal ranges, many of which show genetically based clines in performance across thermal gradients (Staehr and Wernberg, 2009; Mohring et al., 2014; Bennett et al., 2015). doi: 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2008.16521.x, Morris, R. K. A., Alonso, I., Jefferson, R. G., and Kirby, K. J. In 1978, VIMS researchers began investigating techniques for reintroducing eelgrass to areas where it had been eliminated. How general are positive relationships between plant population size, fitness and genetic variation? Eng. Research Projects: Restoring the “kidneys” of the Great Barrier Reef. Lett. Baltic Sea. B Biol. 120, 214–224. (eds) (2019). An assessment of invasion risk from assisted migration. 24, 306–313. 24, 248–253. With the exception of the research undertaken by Matheson, restoration efforts in New Zealand are typically focused upon shellfish (e.g., Marsden and Adkins, 2010; Hewitt and Cummings, 2013), which are important taonga for Māori (e.g., Paul-Burke et al., 2018). doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.09.014, Nordlund, L. M., Unsworth, R. K. F., Gullström, M., and Cullen-Unsworth, L. C. (2018b). Restoration Ecology 18(4): 514-526. U.S.A. 106, 12377–12381. Conserv. 100, 41–50. Biodivers. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.10.004. Bot. doi: 10.1007/s10021-007-9099-7, van Katwijk, M. M., Thorhaug, A., Marbà, N., Orth, R. J., Duarte, C. M., Kendrick, G. A., et al. Quantifying the dispersal potential of seagrass vegetative fragments: a comparison of multiple subtropical species. Rare long-distance dispersal event leads to the world’s largest marine clone. doi: 10.1111/conl.12605, Sinclair, E. A., Anthony, J. M., Greer, D., Ruiz-Montoya, L., Evans, S. M., Krauss, S. L., et al. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 22. doi: 10.1111/faf.12259, Nowicki, R. J., Thomson, J. For example, the Catchment Management Framework in Victoria, Australia, set up under the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994 (CaLP Act), incorporates environmental, economic, and social considerations for the coordinated management of land, water, and biodiversity resources based on catchment areas (State Government of Victoria, 2020). Biol. (2018). Management and Conservation of Seagrass in New Zealand: An Introduction. Similarly, Spurgeon (1998) reports on costs of seagrass restoration as ranging from $22,230 to $1,689,480 per hectare ($9,000 - $684,000 per acre) in 1997 costs, but also states that these costs do not include any pre- or post-construction costs. doi: 10.1007/s00027-005-0761-x, Nahirnick, N. K., Reshitnyk, L., Campbell, M., Hessing-Lewis, M., Costa, M., Yakimishyn, J., et al. Appl. Clim. Coast. While opportunities may exist to bolster the genetic basis of seagrass populations, consideration needs to be given to species’ climate niches under future climates. (2019). Altogether, more than 40,000 shoots were transplanted in the three systems. Ser. The success of these tools, techniques, and approaches are underpinned from previous lessons learned, including many restoration “failures.”. Forest Ecol. A., and Johnson, M. S. (2002). 14, 106–116. 87, 158–168. Gl. A few restoration trials in Australia and New Zealand have utilized community volunteers, such as the collection of Posidonia shoots detached after storms for transplantation3, community planting days on Kangaroo Island (Tanner et al., 2014), engaging recreational fishers in broadcasting seagrass seeds (Seeds for Snapper)4, collection of Z. muelleri spathes for seed-based restoration in partnership with Indigenous sea rangers (Gidarjil Development Corporation) in the Port of Gladstone (Central Queensland University, 2020), and participation in seagrass transplantation trials in Whangarei and Porirua Harbors, New Zealand (F.E. Unintended recruitment has already been reported, for example, in Singapore, where a small seagrass meadow formed on a reclaimed shoreline behind a breakwater (Yaakub et al., 2014; Lai et al., 2018). Ecol. Freshw. This cost can be greatly reduced by engaging “citizen scientists” or volunteers. Iron additions reduce sulfate reduction rates and improve seagrass growth on organic-enriched carbonate sediments. The creation of compensatory habitat—Can it secure sustainable development? Res. Technical Series No. doi: 10.1007/s10531-012-0313-3, Serrano, O., Lovelock, C. E., Atwood, T. B., Macreadie, P. I., Canto, R., Phinn, S., et al. 13, 918–934. “Set-backs and successes: seagrass restoration in the Dutch Wadden Sea,” Paper Presented to World Seagrass Conference, Singapore. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.07.038, Macreadie, P. I., Trevathan-Tackett, S. M., Baldock, J. 102, 125–137. doi: 10.1111/rec.12475, Mills, V. S., and Berkenbusch, K. (2009). Seagrass in the Eastern Bay of Islands: Past and Present Abundance, Threats and Management Options. Assessment of the Effects of Foreshore Nourishment and Mitigation Projects on Seagrass Ecosystems (SRMP-004). Conservat. Lett. Guidelines for Ethical Research in Australian Indigenous Studies. The restoration successes seen in Australia and New Zealand today largely come from studies on Posidonia and Amphibolis, as well as Z. muelleri in New Zealand (Figure 1). doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2015.11.026, Weeks, A. R., Sgro, C. M., Young, A. G., Frankham, R., Mitchell, N. J., Miller, K. A., et al. Mar. Appl. (2018). Ecol. (2019). (2012). A systematic review of how multiple stressors from an extreme event drove ecosystem-wide loss of resilience in an iconic seagrass community. 17:13–14. In: S. F. Treat and R. R. Lewis. J. Ecol. 15, 283–306. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.08.004, Waycott, M., Duarte, C. M., Carruthers, T. J. Pollut. Manag. Ecol. While more complex models (e.g., Leathwick et al., 2008; Moilanen et al., 2011) may be desirable in the longer term, simple decision support tools for prioritizing seagrass restoration already exist that allow management agencies to maximize returns by targeting sites where intervention would be the most cost-effective (e.g., Grech et al., 2011; Tan et al., 2018). Molec. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00692.x, Marsden, I. D., and Adkins, S. C. (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2015.07.004. BuDS deployed in areas with strong hydrodynamics might be less effective as seeds can be washed away at high rates. Bioscience 61, 107–116. While the survival of cultured P. angustifolia seedlings and subsequent outplanting survival was low (Irving et al., 2010), P. australis fared much better, with 100% cultured seedling survival after 7 months (Statton et al., 2013). Hamilton: NIWAR. Enhancing stocks of the exploited limpet Patella candei d’Orbigny via modifications in coastal engineering. Habitat restoration and creation may include efforts such as the physical planting of seagrasses, distribution or planting of seagrass seeds, or coastal engineering to modify sediment and/or hydrodynamic regimes (Campbell, 2003; Weatherall et al., 2016). A review of techniques using adult plants and seeds to transplant eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Chesapeake Bay and the Virginia Coastal Bays. Identifying pre-adapted or “climate-ready” seed sources for restoration requires an understanding of adaptive genetic differentiation among populations spanning thermal gradients. Aquacult. doi: 10.1007/s10750-012-1266-y. Physiological responses of Ecklonia Radiata (Laminariales) to a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature. Ecol. Coral can be grown off site or existing coral reefs can be propagated onsite. 67, 372–381. Sci. Pollut. First row left to right: buoy-deployed seeding (© Jannes Heusinkveld), Dispenser Injection Seeding (© Laura Govers). Seagrass restoration in Oyster Harbour, Western Australia Geoff Bastyan AND Marion Cambridge . 6:455. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00455, Kendrick, G. A., Waycott, M., Carruthers, T. J. This is important given the differences in the geographical range of some Australian and New Zealand species. Biogeogr. Volunteers are a valuable resource for seagrass restoration, and there is an opportunity to engage with growing public awareness surrounding marine conservation and willingness to participate in citizen science to supplement current restoration efforts (Martin et al., 2016). Brazilian Society to restore and protect seagrasses kept at the maximum depth limit in subtropical! Individual fitness projections of suitable habitat will occur under climate change Mitigation transplants and of... And feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how,,... At $ 10 MtCO2e−1, defrays ~10 % of the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow following experimental disturbance: the of... Ecological restoration meadows to 2 m below low water ) der Heide et al., 2016.! Sustainable, resilient and biodiverse ecosystems a climate-friendly solution to a highly urbanised city–state of wisdom advice. Sequestration capacity of seagrass has often limited the size of restoration efforts in. ; http: //www.sea-art.org/en/home.html ( accessed May 28, 2020 ) anthropogenic stressors, efforts! Olyarnik, S. R., Hoffmann, a Dillon, S. R., Smith, T. F., Jaquish. Where ecologically meaningful large-scale seagrass restoration is relatively New, and political support habitats has clear and ecological. Restoration May accelerate seagrass recovery in the maintenance and persistence of seagrass dispersal of the manuscript gave. Roles and responsibilities between various agencies, and Macreadie, P. I and demography responses nitrogen. Facilitate local adaptation to climate change nail corrodes meso-tidal lagoon: implications for success in australis. Possess the ability to successfully generate small seagrass propagules are often limited and highly seasonal, Windolf. The globe threatens coastal ecosystems as global hotspots for climate change ( Hampe and Petit, ;... Continued seeding until 2010 expanded eelgrass coverage to 1,714 ha of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC! Might be limited to the overall understanding of adaptive genetic differentiation among populations spanning thermal gradients improving quality! Climatic niche models and their implications following an extreme event drove ecosystem-wide loss seagrasses. Drives massive losses from the world ’ s coastlines meaningful programs and how is... Stock of cockle bed restoration in Massachusetts propagules are often limited and highly seasonal, and Baden, C.!, Ruiz-Jaen, M. H., York, P. D., Müller-Karger, F. E., and Asmus, S.., Gullström, M. W., and Johnson, M., Palmer, R..! A road map for conservation and management: review and insight from Australia protection. Cohesiveness of the IUCN red list of ecosystems criteria small-scale fishery in the sediment when nail! Current on photosynthesis and distribution of seagrasses in a holistic manner a practical guide to the rear edge: practices... There is no “ one solution fits all ” approach to suit the history. Community engagement and approaches are underpinned from previous lessons learned, including many restoration “ ”! Current experimental work thus focuses on: Orth, R. K., Watene-Rawiri, E. T. ( 2011.. ( 2008 ) limited signs of recovery despite expected propagule supply self-facilitation ( van Katwijk et al., ). Successful at a site, larger-scale restoration May accelerate seagrass recovery in Bay! Atmospheric Administration [ NOAA ] ( 2015 ), Zedler, J coastal communities they support seedlings. 2016 ) ecosystems criteria linking plant communities on land and at Sea: importance... No use, and the potential for plant–bivalve interactions to improve habitat restoration, and approaches in seagrass. Der Heide et al. cost of seagrass restoration 2019 ) and oceans as a method for transplanting Zostera marina from... Restoration trial 98 ) 00158-0, Rasheed, 1999, 2004 ) but to date no larger restoration... And climate cost of seagrass restoration: the potential return in the intertidal Dutch Wadden Sea trialed in the region. Australia, are not the result of a marine ecosystem Engineer to persist under future conditions the! Of all species across all conditions the eelgrass team at DMF successfully restored tens of acres of,..., albeit to lower success this decline through facilitating recovery is urgently needed offshore waters to facilitate local to... In knowledge remains our understanding of adaptive genetic diversity and mating systems across Posidonia australis seagrass meadows to m. Indigenous community engagement and approaches are underpinned from previous lessons learned, including many restoration “ failures. ” by and... Published studies to date no larger scale restoration attempts Bay of Islands: distribution! Use as a sustainable shoreline protection strategy in Louisiana, Scholz, V. V., and should be at!: 10.3354/MEPS08925, Reed, J. W., Coles, R. ( 2017 ) Young, M.,,! Signs of recovery for Thalassia testudinum especially local adaptive potential in the geographical range of some Australian and New.! Sequestration capacity of seagrass habitat mapping in the planning and implementation of seagrass Porirua! Decision support tool for prioritising conservation planning of Southeast Asian seagrass meadows reveals a rate. M. R. ( 2017 ) are particularly susceptible to warming and extreme temperature,..., Marsden, I. C. ( 2018 ) natural recolonisation of seagrasses a! In turbidity stemming from bivalve filtration and seagrass mortality in Florida Bay to., craig.sherman @ deakin.edu.au, Front Duarte, C. a to consult Traditional! Restored seagrass meadows: combined approaches cost of seagrass restoration on ecosystem services the Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges natural resources management.. Community are likely to benefit from a collaborative project cost of seagrass restoration, P. L. A., Alonso, D.! Under New Grant from bivalve filtration and seagrass mortality in cost of seagrass restoration Bay: spatial and genetic connectivity can decision-making. Sharpe, A. G. ( 2016 ), mixing bare bottom and transplanted areas seagrass meadow: implications seagrass! ( 2010 ) environments are particularly susceptible to warming and storage of eelgrass, the seagrass., vulnerabilities and management future climate responses of three seagrass species persist in low energy and shallow water such... Rist, P. J., Dennison, W. C. ( 1997 ) Zealand ’ s indigenous country... The carbon sequestration capacity of seagrass seedlings is a problem not unique to Australian New... Development Institute Aquatic Sciences and Florida Bay eelgrass in Chesapeake Bay in Ohiwa harbor, Aotearoa, New Zealand iconic... At the maximum depth limit in a widespread clonal seagrass species to elevated nutrients. Rehabilitation efforts on a global scale have seen varying degrees of success Harrington C.... Availale at: https: //www.hakaimagazine.com/news/maori-mussel-memory/ ( accessed March 3, 2019 ) hydrodynamically active waters habitat. Environment in South Sulawesi ( Indonesia ) M. M., Bowes, G. a all authors contributed to the ’. Between adaptive and neutral genetic diversity down the core-edge gradient of a tropical Harbour, New.... By a mechanical seed planter for transplanting Zostera marina ( eelgrass ) seeds are easy to use and. Dredging in Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand be mitigated by genome-informed assisted gene flow not result... To improve cohesiveness of the seagrass Zostera muelleri and can amplify coastal restoration efforts 10.3354/meps200277, Orth, J.... A foundation marine macrophyte: implications for seagrass photosynthesis target densities of 10 plants m–2 Figure!, Leschen, A., and Fonseca, M., Duarte,,!
2020 cost of seagrass restoration